R. Kiessling, W. B. Colson, S. Gewinner, W. Schöllkopf, M. Wolf, and A. Paarmann:
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 21, 080702 (2018), pp 11;
We experimentally demonstrate a single-shot arrival time monitor for short picosecond infrared free-electron laser (IR FEL) pulses based on balanced optical cross-correlation with a synchronized fs table-top laser. Employing this timing tool at the Fritz Haber Institute IR FEL, we observe a shot-to-shot timing jitter of only 100 fs and minute-scale timing drifts of a few picoseconds, the latter being strictly correlated with the electron beam energy of the accelerator. We acquire sum-frequency cross-correlation data with micropulse resolution, providing full access to the IR FEL pulse shape evolution within the macropulse. These measurements provide unprecedented insights into the occurrence of limit-cycle oscillations of the FEL intensity as a consequence of subpulse formation. Our experimental results are complemented by four-dimensional simulations of the nonlinear pulse dynamics in a low-gain FEL oscillator based on Maxwell-Lorentz theory.
The original publication is available by link DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.21.080702