Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft   
Department of Physical Chemistry

Thematic Illustrations to Research Headed by Prof. Gerhard Ertl
Thematische Abbildungen zur von Prof. Gerhard Ertl geleiteten Forschung

Haber-Bosch Reaction
Heterocatalytic Reactions
Pattern Formation
Atomic-Scale Surface Imaging
This page hopes to give laypersons as well as otherwise-specialized experts certain visual access to topics that have played a major part in the scientific research headed by Prof. Gerhard Ertl. Diese Seite soll Laien und fachlich anderweitig Spezialisierten einen visuellen Einsicht in die von Prof. Gerhard Ertl geleitete wissenschaftliche Forschung ermöglichen.
Texts to read / Etwas zum Lesen:    • two-minute speed-read summary text “Exploring Chemistry at the Frontier”;                         
  • information for the public “From artificial fertilizers to clean exhaust” (pdf, 600 kB);  
  •  Scientific background: Håkan Wennerström & Sven Lidin, “Chemical Processes on Solid Surfaces” (pdf, 400 kB);  

Haber-Bosch Reaction

The agriculture of the world has been supplied with fertilizers rich in nitrogen since 1913 due to the Haber-Bosch process, where the nitrogen of the air is converted to ammonia using an iron-based catalyst.”
(Royal Swedish Academy of Science, 2007) 
N2    N2,ad     2Nad
H2     2Had
Nad  +  Had     NHad
NHad  +  Had     NH2,ad
NH2,ad  +  Had     NH3,ad    NH3
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Heterocatalytic Reactions

       Heterogeneous catalysis has been a central process in the chemical industry for a century. .....
..... Today every car produced has a catalyst system that converts carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases.”
(Royal Swedish Academy of Science, 2007) 
Chemisorption  Surface Reaction


   the Ostwald process
   4NH3  +  5O2     4NO  +  6H2O
   2NO  +  O2     2NO2
   3NO2  +  H2O     2HNO3  +  NO
(1050–1200K, 1–10bar, Pt/Pt+Rh)
side reactions:
   4NH3  +  4O2     2N2O  +  6H2O
   4NH3  +  3O2     2N2  +  6H2O
   4NH3  +  6NO     5N2  +  6H2O



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Pattern Formation

This can in addition to an oscillatory kinetics also lead to a spatial organization
on the surface .....”
(Royal Swedish Academy of Science, 2007) 
CO +O2  CO2 / Pt(110)

Quantum dots

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Atomic-Scale Imaging
of Surface Processes

in vacuum
in electrolyte
  Oxygen atoms on Ru(0001)
13% coverage, room temperature

Sauerstoffatome auf Ru(0001)
13% Bedeckung, Zimmertemperatur

     OH-Front on Pt(111) surface     

Oad + Had   OHad
OHad + Had   H2Oad
H2Oad Oad   2OHad
NO  NOad  Nad + Oad / Ru(0001), 300K
The dissociation takes place at the step
Die Dissoziierung findet an der Stufe statt

O2  O2,ad  2Oad / Pt(111), 165K
At low t°, the dissociated atoms stay close by.
Bei niedrigen T° bleiben die dissoziierten
Atome in der Nähe
A monolayer of thymine on a Au(111) surface
Eine Thymin-Monolage auf einer Au(111)-Oberfläche

Microscopic imaging with simultaneous spectroscopic analysis: 
five BCB molecules on a Au(111) surface
Mikroskopische Abbildung bei gleichzeitiger spektroskopischer Analyse: 
Fünf BCB-Moleküle auf einer Au(111)-Oberfläche

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