next, previous Section / Table of Contents / Index BALSAC uses an internal color definition and coding scheme for producing screen graphics and color PostScript output which will be explained in the following. The complete internal table determining all available colors contains nctot <= ncmax entries (ncmax = 16 for DOS/VGA, = 256 for Unix/X.11) consisting each of an integer triple (nr, ng, nb) defining RGB colors with values nr, ng, nb ranging between 0 and rgb (defined in the initialization file with defaults rgb = 63 for DOS/VGA, = 65535). The color table entries 0...pb (pb = 3 for DOS/VGA, = 7 for Unix/X.11) determine the BASE COLORS defined in the following table ------------------------------ ------------------------------ (a) Unix/X.11 (b) DOS/VGA entry color definition entry color definition ------------------------------ ------------------------------ 0 "black" 0 "black" 1 "white" 1 "white" 2 graphics background 0 graphics background 3 graphics text color 0 graphics text color 4 default link color 1 default link color 5 default stereo red 2 default stereo red 6 default stereo blue 3 default stereo blue 7 default stereo white 1 default stereo white ------------------------------ ------------------------------ The remaining color table entries pb+1...nctot determine colors used for painting/shading of balls and bonds. These colors are based on ncolb entries (BASIC PAINT COLORS). Each paint color comes with nsh different TONES varying from dark to light among which there is a default DARK TONE and a LIGHT TONE. These definitions are given in the initialization file, see Sec. 6.4.10. The respective color table entries are as follows -------------------------------------------------------------------------- palette color table entries color (darkest) ..... (def.dark) ..... (def.light) .... (lightest) -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 ns(1)+1 ....... ns(1)+na ....... ns(1)+ne ....... ns(1)+nsh 2 ns(2)+1 ....... ns(2)+na ....... ns(2)+ne ....... ns(2)+nsh ... ncolb ns(ncolb)+1 ... ns(ncolb)+na ... ns(ncolb)+ne ... ns(ncolb)+nsh -------------------------------------------------------------------------- where ns(i) = pb+(i-1)*nsh yielding a total number of colors nctot = ns(ncolb)+nsh = pb+ncolb*nsh . The above color table entries are used to define background and link colors allowing for the full range of nctot colors. In contrast, colors used to paint circles and (shaded) balls of atoms are addressed by their paint color. Defining paint color j for - a circle or ball (filled circle) will use the respective def.dark color table entry given by position ns(j)+na(j) . - a hard-, fuzzy-, or dither-shaded ball (two color filling, black framing) will use the "black", def.dark, and def.light color table entries given by positions 0, ns(j)+na(j), and ns(j)+ne(j). - a glossy-shaded ball (continuous color filling) will use nsh color table entries, ns(j)+1 ... ns(j)+nsh. BALSAC contains an internal color palette which is generated when BALSAC is started using definitions of the initialization file, see Sec. 6.4.10. The palette has nptot entries np(1), ... np(nptot) which point at paint color indices j and thus determine the sequence in which paint colors are used in plots, see Sec. 6.2.7. The above color table is generated when BALSAC is started using definitions of the initialization file, see Sec. 6.4.10. In this file all base colors 0...pb are defined explicitly by their RGB values while the paint colors are given in short form. For paint color j a basic definition RGB0 = (R(j), G(j), B(j)), four darkness factors (values between 0 and 1), qu(j) for darkest, qb(j)j for def.dark, qe(j) for def.light, qt(j) for lightest, and a gamma value gam are defined from which the nsh different tones (color table entries) are built. This uses an RGB color function (linear path between (0,0,0), RGB0, and (rgb, rgb, rgb)) given by RGB0 * q/qint if q < qint RGB(q) = ( RGB0*(1-q) + RGBW*(q-qint) ) / (1-qint) if q > qint with qint = (R(j)+G(j)+B(j)) / (3*rgb) and RGBW = (rgb, rgb, rgb). Then the different tones of paint color j corresponding to color table entries ns(j)+1 ... ns(j)+nsh are defined by RGB(q(i)) with q(i) = qu(j) + (qt(j)-qu(j)) * [(i-1)/(nsh-1)]**gam , i = 1,...nsh . The gamma factor gam allows you to modify the distribution of tones between the darkest and lightest value. Here gam = 1 corresponds to a homogeneous distribution while gam > 1 (gam < 1) emphasizes darker (lighter) tones. Reasonable gamma values lie between 0.3 and 3.0. The offsets na(j), ne(j) used for the def.dark and def.light tones (see above) are determined by integers na(j) nearest to (nsh-1) * (qb(j)-qu(j)) / (qt(j)-qu(j)) , ne(j) nearest to (nsh-1) * (qe(j)-qu(j)) / (qt(j)-qu(j)) . If gray tone conversion of screen colors is selected, see Sec. 6.2.15, all RGB color entries are replaced by gray values using the video transformation (r,g,b) --> (r',g',b') = (s,s,s) with s = 0.30*r + 0.59*g + 0.11*b . All color and palette definitions given in the BALSAC initialization file may be modified with the basic parameter option of a BALSAC session, see Sec. 6.2.15. However, the appropriate color parameters have to be chosen with care to avoid incomplete or incorrect graphics. Color PostScript file output uses the RGB values as defined in the color table. However, all RGB integers are renormalized to real numbers inside the range [0,1]. Output of color PostScript files on b/w PostScript laser printers automatically converts RGB colors to gray tones using the above transformation. Gray scale PostScript file output converts colors for painting atoms and bonds to gray tones according to the above transformation (r,g,b) --> (r',g',b') . Note that in practice only 4 - 6 different gray shaded atoms can be easily discriminated in a plot. This has to be considered in designing gray scale PostScript output by setting respective color code tables, see Secs. 6.2.15, 6.4.10. An initialization file 'bwgraph.ini' provided with the BALSAC software contains color definitions which are optimized for best gray scale results. It can be loaded inside the basic parameter option ([P] from the main option menu) of a BALSAC session. The different shading algorithms for screen output are described below and in Secs. 6.2.7, 6.3.5. PostScript output allows only for hard-shading (option [H] of the graphics design menu, see Sec. 6.2.7) and for continuous shading (options [F],[D],[G] of the graphics design menu, see Sec. 6.2.7). Hard-shading used in PostScript output is identical to that of screen output. Continuous shading uses, for each palette color or palette gray tone, a set of nshps different tones which are determined by the algorithm used also for color screen output and described above (note that all PostScript RGB components are within the range [0.0,1.0] and rgb = 1.0). When continuous shading is active the value of nshps is prompted before PostScript file output is initiated. This allows for separate shading densities in PostScript and screen output. Ball shading for screen and PostScript output is determined by the direction of the incident light defined by angles by polar and azimuthal angles theta, phi with respect to the screen or paper normal direction yielding a direction (unit) vector e = ( sin(theta)*cos(phi), sin(theta)*sin(phi), cos(theta) ) where one light source and parallel light is assumed. A polar angle phi = 0 corresponds to the vertical y direction on the screen. Thus, the default values theta,phi = 65,-25 degrees refer to light shining from the upper left front location relative to the viewer. Shading is based on three contributions - homogeneous diffuse background light of relative intensity qdiff, - Lambert shading determined by the scalar product n*e of the ball surface normal (unit) vecor n and the light direction vector e with a maximum relative intensity qlamb, - specularly reflected light determined by the 5th power of the scalar product of the screen or paper normal direction vector and the reflected light direction vector with a maximum relative intensity qspec. where qdiff + qlamb + qspec = 1. Hard-shading of balls (design option [H] using two color tones (dark, light)) needs only factor qdiff where the separation line between the dark and light tone is determined by the equation n * e = qdiff , see above. Fuzzy- and dither-shading of balls (options [F],[D] of the graphics design menu) assumes no specular reflection ( qspec = 0.0) while glossy-shading (option [G]) includes all tree contributions, see Sec. 6.2.7, 6.3.5. At present PostScript print output of shaded balls does not include specular reflection. next, previous Section / Table of Contents / Index